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Enugu was then renamed simply Enugu and developed as one of the few cities in West Africa created from European contact. As of 2005 there are no significant coal mining activities left in the city.Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region after Nigeria's independence in 1960; a succession of territorial adjustments in 1967, 19 led to Enugu becoming the capital of what is now Enugu State.The Nike used slaves for a defence strategy, placing slave camps at the edge of their territories so that it was harder for an enemy to access the free born.Along with the Aro people who came to trade from Arochukwu in the south were the Hausa people who came to trade from the north. The name Enugu is derived from the two Igbo words Énú Ụ́gwụ́ meaning "hill top" denoting the city's hilly geography.
On the African side of the city a rapid influx of migrant workers sparked the development of squatter camps on the Udi Hills near the coal mines and the Iva Valley.On Enugu was declared the capital of the short-lived Republic of Biafra; for this Enugu is known as the "capital of Igboland." After Enugu was captured by the Nigerian armed forces, the Biafran capital was moved to Umuahia.Industries in the city include the urban market and bottling industries.The Hausa traders provided horses to the Nike which were used for rituals by the Igbo.Both the Aro and Hausa migrated back and forth to what is now the city of Enugu and were considered foreigners to the area.